Paint: Generic term for a thin layer used to protect or decorate a surface.
|NAME||AKA||DEFINITION||WHY IT’S IMPORTANT|
|BINDER||SOLIDS||Gives the paint film integrity and holds the particles of pigment together.||Most often determines the quality of the paint, durability, flexibility, color retention, gloss, and resistance to peeling, scrubbing and staining.|
|PIGMENTS||SOLIDS||Finely ground natural or synthetic insoluble materials that give paint its colorEXTENDERS: May be added to the pigment to reduce the total amount of titanium dioxide (white) needed, but this results in a poorer quality paint.||Without any pigment, the paint would dry clear, glossy film, similar to a varnish.Low ratio of pigment to binder = glossyHigh ratio of pigment to binder = flat|
|LIQUID /CARRIER||–||Keeps the paint liquid so that it can be applied before it dries. This evaporates after application.||In latex paint, this is water. In oil based paints, its mineral spirits.|
|ADDITIVES||–||MILDEWCIDES: Inhibit mildew from growing on the paint and are especially useful for exterior, kitchen, and bathroom coatings.DEFOAMERS: Help break bubbles when applying the paint (with a roller).EXTENDERS: Can slow the drying time||Mixed into the paints to impart certain attributes, this makes the paint have certain desirable qualities.|
Types of Paint
Reference the above chart for definitions used below.
Solvent Based Paint
Manufactured with binders containing (or dissolved in) organic solvents.
When a small amount of pigment is added, it becomes a stain.
- Stains: Give color to a surface, but still allow the underlying material to show through. Most commonly used on wood, and sometimes on concrete. Depending on application and exposure, stains need to be regularly re-applied.
Use a drying or curing oil as the binder. Oil paints are durable but have a strong odor when applied and must be cleaned up with a solvent (mineral spirits). They cannot be applied to damp surfaces or surfaces that may become damp from behind.
- For light colored paints the oxidizing process that causes the paint to dry may produce a yellowish and crack or chip as it ages.
- Proper ventilation is required when applying.
Water Based Paints
Latex Paint: Binders are either soluble or dispersed in water. No odor.
- Standard latex paint will not have the binders and properties to be applied over a dried water stain and keep it covered. Over time the stain has a high likelihood of re-appearing. You must use a latex based primer or stain killer on the stained area prior to painting.
Epoxy is used as a very durable binder for resistance to corrosion and chemicals. Resistant to abrasion and adhere strongly to concrete, metal, and wood.
- Considered a high performance coating and requires skilled applicators.
- Fumes given off are noxious, so proper ventilation is required.
Considered a high-performance coating for its superior resistance to abrasion, grease, alcohol, water, and fuel.
- Generally used interior for a clear coat over wood floorings. (similar to a stain or varnish)
- Clear or pigmented paint for anti-graffiti coatings.
- Sometimes used purely for aesthetics because it can be very high gloss and almost glass like sheen.
Paint Gloss Level
- Gloss And Semigloss Finish: Typically chosen for the cleanability and shiny appearance. Glossy paints tend to emphasize defects in the surfaces on which they are applied.
- Satin or Matte Finish: Paints provide a dull luster while still retaining some washability.
- Flat Finish: Paints hide imperfections but are not as washable as the other types.
Color is one of the dominant perceptions of space and is vital to interior design and architecture. Color is affected by many things including the color and quality of light in space, cultural references, gender, association with brands, and the meanings of the color in society. In addition, everyone’s perceptions of color are slightly different.
Color: Physical property of light.
Additive Colors: Colors created with light.
- Two different wavelengths of light will create the average of the two wavelengths of color.
- When all colors are present, it is reflecting all colors and creates white.
Subtractive Colors: Colors created with pigments
- When all colors are absorbed, we perceive no colors, or black.
The color of an object is whatever wavelength of color that object absorbs (or subtracts), from the spectrum of light that strikes it.
- Blue Example: A blue object with white light hitting it will absorb the blue wavelengths of light. The blue is absorbed and shown on the object while all other colors are reflected.
Light & Pigment
Primary Colors of Light
Primary colors of light are Red, Green, and Blue. These are the colors that make up LEDs in monitors.
- They produce white light when mixed equally.
- Red, Green, Blue is abbreviated as RGB
Primary Colors of Pigment
Primary colors of pigment are Red, Yellow and Blue.
- Hue: Attribute by which color is distinguished from others
- When a light contains a strong component of a particular hue, the light will intensify colors with similar hues and neutralize colors of complementary hues.
- Red objects under incandescent light will appear more intensely red and vibrant, where blues will appear washed out and muddy.
- Value: Describes the degree of lightness or darkness
- Intensity: Degree of purity in the hue compared to a neutral gray of the same value.
Colors and Light
Colors do not exist in isolation, and therefore the colors are affected by the environments and light that are cast upon it. This essentially means that colors will always look slightly different in different environments, whether location, time of day, etc.
Complimentary Colors: Colors opposite of eachother on the color wheel. These colors help reinforce each other and when placed next to one another, they heighten the saturation of the other color.
- Complimentary colors are used frequently in logo design and for branding.
- Example: Christmas (Red & Green)
- Example: NFL Chicago Bears (Blue & Orange) NFL Vikings (Purple & Yellow)